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    ___ Algeria - ????????


    Sand dunes of the Sahara in Timimoun District, south-central Algeria
    Sahara sand dunes in Timimoun District, Adrar Province in south-central Algeria.
    Image: Zinou de Batna
     
    Location map Algeria. North Africa, Algeria
    Location map Algeria


    Algeria Flag
    Flag of Algeria
    Destination Algeria, the country is located in Northern Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in north, Tunisia in northeast, Libya in east, Morocco in west, Western Sahara, Mauritania, and Mali in southwest, and by Niger in the southeast.

    Algeria is now Africa's largest country, covering an area of nearly 2.4 million km2, compared, it is 4 times the size of France or slightly less than 3.5 times the size of the U.S. state of Texas. But the country is almost only populated in the small coastal region, because its southern part is covered by the Sahara, the largest subtropical hot desert.

    Algeria has a population of 40.4 million people (in 2016). About 90% of Algerians live in the northern, coastal area. Official language is Arabic, French is the language of the elite, Tamazight, the language of the indigenous Berber has been constitutionally recognized as a national language. Capital and most populous city is Algiers.
     

    People's Democratic Republic of Algeria | Al Jaza'ir


    Country Profile

    Algeria, al Jaza'ir - in Arabic
    al Jaza'ir


    Background:
    Algeria's indigenous Berber people has been under foreign rule for much of the last 3000 years. The Phoenicians (1000 BC) and the Romans (200 BC) were the most important of these. With the incursion of Muslim Arabs in the 7th-8th century into the region, Islamic influence came to the Berbers and almost a millenium of domination by Arab dynasties.

    In the beginning of the 16th century the region was placed under protection of the Ottoman Sultan of Istanbul, followed by reigns of Ottoman beys, pachas, and aghas, brought to an end with the beginning of the French colonization in 1830.

    The French occupation condemned Algeria's population to economic, social and political inferiority and caused an armed resistance lasting for decades. After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962 and Arabic became official language - with a little help of Quran teachers from Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
    Since then le pouvoir ("the power"), an elite of business leaders and generals behind a democratic façade has run Algeria.

    Algeria is a member state of the League of Arab States

    related countries: France
     

     


    Official Name:
    Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
    short form: Al Jaza'ir
    int'l long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
    int'l short form: Algeria

    ISO Country Code: dz
    Actual Time: Thu-Nov-26  18:41
    Local Time = UTC +1h

    Country Calling Code: +213

    Capital City: Algiers (Alger, Algier)
    (pop.) 3 000 000

    Principal Towns: Oran, Constantine, Annaba, Blida, Setif, Sidi be Abbes.

    Government:
    Type: Republic.
    Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France).

    Geography:
    Location: Northern Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the north, Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania on the west, Mali and Niger on the south, and Libya and Tunisia on the east.
    Area: 2.38 million km²
    Terrain: Algeria consists of four regions: the coastal mountainous chain. Plains and high plateaus. The mountainous chain of the interior. The area of the Grand Sud with its mountainous solid masses.

    Climate:
    Mediterranean in the north, mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; dry or desert climate for the extreme south of the country; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer.

    People:
    Nationality: Algerian(s).
    Population: 40.4 million (2016)
    Ethnic groups: ~ Arab 83%, Berber 17%, Touareg, European less than 1%.
    Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%.
    Languages: Arabic (official), French, Tamazight and other Berber dialects.
    Literacy: total population, 70%; male 78.8%, female 61% (2003 est.)

    Natural resources: Rich deposits of iron ore, phosphates, lead, zinc and antimony; deposits of petroleum and natural gas.

    Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle.

    Industries: Petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing.

    Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

    Exports partners:
    Spain 18.8%, France 11.2%, USA 8.8%, Italy 8.7%, UK 7.1%, Brazil 5.2%, Tunisia 4.9%, Germany 4.5% (2015)

    Imports partners:
    China 15.6%, France 14.4%, Italy 9.4%, Spain 7.4%, Germany 5.6%, Russia 4.1% (2015)

    Currency: Algerian Dinar (DZD)

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    Official Sites of Algeria

    The political system of Algeria is determined by the ailing President (Abdelaziz Bouteflika, 79) in hiding, and a group of unelected civilian and military "décideurs", known as "le pouvoir" ("the power"), but there is a power struggle within the inner circle that has raised fears well beyond the North African country. There are doubts, even by his his closest associates, about Bouteflika's ability to rule the country. After two strokes in recent years Bouteflika has dramatically reduced his public activity. Bouteflika's opponents have called for early presidential elections because of his physical frailty.


    Présidence de la République Algérienne Démocratique et Populaire
    The Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. (in Arabic and French)

    Algerian Head of Government
    Official government website of the Prime Minister of Algeria (in Arabic/French).

    The Algerian Government consists of:
    Le Conseil de la Nation
    The National Council of the Nation (Senate) (in Arabic).
    People's National Assembly
    People's National Assembly is the lower house of the Algerian Parliament.

    Algerian Constitutional Council
    Algeria's highest judicial authority.

    Ministère des Affaires Etrangères
    Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Permanent Mission of Algeria to the United Nations in New York
    Site of the Permanent Mission of Algeria to the UN.
    Algerian Embassy in the U.S.
    Algerian Embassy in Washington DC.
    Algerian Consulate London
    Algerian Consulate in the UK.
    Algerian Embassy London
    Algerian Embassy in the UK.

    Statistics
    Office National des Statistiques de l'Algérie (ONS)
    National Office of Statistics.


    Weather
    Office National de la Météorologie
    National Office of Meteorology.

     Ministries and National Government Agencies of Algeria
    More Official Sites of Algeria.

    Maps

    Map of Algeria
    Political Map of Algeria.
    Google Earth Google Earth Algeria
    Searchable map/satellite view of Algeria.
    Google Earth Google Earth Algiers (El-Jazair)
    Searchable map/satellite view of Algeria's capital city.

    Map of the Mediterranean Sea
    Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
    Political Map of of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.
    Map of Africa
    Political Map of Africa.
    Relief Map of Africa

    Cave paintings, Tasili n Ajjer, Algeria
    Rock engravings in Tassili n'Ajjer, a vast plateau in south-east Algeria at the borders of Libya, Niger and Mali. Tassili n'Ajjer is a World Heritage Site.
    Image: Patrick Gruban
     
     

    News from Algeria

    According to Al Jazeera and other media outlets, the independent press in Algeria is under increasing pressure, despite a guarantee of press freedom in the country's newly approved constitution.

    Presse-dz
    Algerian Press Portal.

    Algerian News Agencies
    Agence Algérienne d'Information ( AAI )
    The Algerian Agency of Information.
    Algeria Interface (no longer online)
    The bilingual news and views from Algeria, was run by Algerian
    and European journalists, whereas the french section was more up to date.
    Algérie Presse Service
    More Official News by the Algerian News Agency.
    New Press Algerie
    Algerian Photo Press Agency.

    Daily/weekly News
    Echorouk
    Algerian and international news in Arabic, English and French.
    El Khabar
    Independent Daily (Arabic, English and French).
    El Moudjahid
    State-run daily ( in French and English-language).
    Le Quotidien d'Oran
    Private daily (in French)
    Liberte
    National news, weekly (French).
    La Tribune
    National news, weekly (French).
    El Watan
    National and international news (French).

    International News
    Al Jazeera
    Arabic news network.

     

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    Arts & Culture


    Musée national des Beaux-arts d’Alger
    National Museum of Fine Art, Algiers.

    Musée National CIRTA, Constantine Algérie
    Official site of the National Museum (in Arabic and French).

    Kabylie
    Kabylie culture forum.

    The Berbers
    Al Bab about the Berbers.

    Mano Dayak, 1949-1995
    Article about the internationally renowned Twareg leader of the Tamoust Liberation Front (FLT) and the so called "Twareg problem".


    Music
    Algerian Rai Music
    Introduction to Algeria's popular music.

    Dj Cheb i Sabbah (1947 - 2013)
    Born in Algeria, dj Cheb i Sabbah might be best described as a ritual music "hajji," a musical pilgrim of the spirit. Listen to DJ Cheb I Sabbah - Ganga Dev.
    Cheb Khaled (Khaled)
    Cheb Khaled, Algerian ra? singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist born in Oran. Listen to Cheb Khaled - A?cha

    Introduction to Raï Music of Algeria
    Short Introduction to Algerian Raï Music with some sound examples.
    Tinariwen
    Tuareg musicians from the Sahara Desert region. Listen to Tinariwen - Live at Womad arts festival.

     
    Cashba in Alger
    Cashba in Algiers. The historic district was once home to thousands of craftsmen. The Kasbah (Arabic: ??????); is a type of medina, a medieval north African city, or fortress (citadel).
    Image: Magharebia


    Business & Economy


    Algeria is classified as an upper middle income country by the World Bank. However, poverty remains widespread and unemployment high, particularly among Algeria's youth.
    The economy is dominated by the state, the Algerian government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy. The country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe and energy exports are the backbone of the economy.

    Banque d'Algérie
    Central Bank of Algeria.

    La Chambre Algérienne du Commerce et d ’Industrie
    Algerian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

    Algerian National Institute of Industrial Property (INAPI)

    National Agency of Investment Development (ANDI)


    ISP Algeria
    CERIST
    Centre de Recherche sur l'Information Scientifique et Technique, Algerie.

    Transportation
    Air Algérie
    The national carrier of Algeria serves the most significant cities of the interior as well as 37 stopovers through Europe Africa and the Middle-East.
     
     
    M'Zab Valley Sahara, Algeria
    M'Zab Valley with its five ksour (fortified villages)
    Image: ? UNESCO / Francis Tack


    Travel and Tour Consumer Information


    Country Guides


    Ministère du Tourisme et de l'Artisanat - Algérie
    Official guide to Algeria by the Ministry of tourism and the craft industry (in Arabic and French).

    Algérie tourisme
    Site about tourism and the craft industry in Algeria (in French).

    Algeria Guide
    An Algeria Guide in French.



    UNESCO World Heritage Sites
    World Heritage Site Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad
    The ruins of Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of the Hammadid emirs, founded in 1007. 

    World Heritage Site Djémila (Cuicul)
    The remains of the ancient colony Roman with a forum, temples, basilicas, triumphal arches and houses, founded during the reign of Nerva (96 - 98 A.D.).

    World Heritage Site Kasbah of Algiers
    The Kasbah of Algiers, a walled citadel and the traditional quarter clustered around it is overlooking the islands where a Carthaginian trading-post was established in the 4th century BC. There are the remains of the citadel, the old mosques and Ottoman-style palaces as well as the remains of an urban structure associated with a deep-rooted sense of community.

    Timgad
    Colonia Marciana Traiana Thamugadi. Timgad lies on the northern slopes of the Aurès mountains and was created as a military colony by the Emperor Trajan in AD 100. Timgad official website
    Image: ? UNESCO / Yvon Fruneau

    World Heritage Site M'Zab Valley
    M'Zab Valley with its five ksour (fortified villages) is a traditional human habitat, created in the 10th century. The ancient urban agglomeration is located in the northern Sahara Desert, 600 km south of Algiers.

    World Heritage Site Tassili n'Ajjer
    On a vast plateau in south-east Algeria at the borders of Libya and Niger is the strange lunar landscape of the ‘rock forests’ of Tassili n'Ajjer, has an exceptional density of paintings and engravings, and many other prehistoric vestiges. More than 15,000 drawings and engravings record the climatic changes, the animal migrations and the evolution of human life on the edge of the Sahara from 6000 BC to the first centuries of the present era.

    World Heritage Site Timgad (Colonia Marciana Traiana Thamugadi)
    The Roman military colony north of the Aurès of the massif was founded in 100 A.D. by Trajan. The colony was a "planned city" built out of nothing (ex nihilo), with crosswise aligned streets (cardo and decumanus), Roman urban planning at its height.



    Education


    Abou Bekr Belkaid University
    Tlemcen
    Badji Mokhtar University
    One of the oldest universities in Algeria, located in Annaba.
    Université d'Alger
    Algiers oldest university, founded 1909.
    Université Mentouri - Constantine
    Constantine
     
     

    Environment


    Fondation Déserts du Monde
    World Deserts Foundation is an intergovernmental orgainzation with the missions to fight against desertification and poverty, and secondly, the preservation and enhancement of the cultures of peoples of the deserts (site in French).

    Centre National de Formation Environnemental
    National Center for Environmental Development (in French)

     
     

    History


    History of Algeria
    From ancient times to recent history of Algeria.

    Algerian History
    Timeline of Algeria's history by the Embassy of Algeria, London.

    History of Algeria
    Page about Algeria's rich history by Wikipedia.

     

    Coin from the time of the Hafsid dynasty (1229–1574) with ornemental Kufic calligraphy.
    Image: PGHCOM

    Additional Information on Algeria



    Human Rights
    Amnesty International: Algeria
    Amnesty International Reports.
    Human Rights Watch: Algeria

    Press Freedom
    Reporters sans frontières - Algeria
    Report about Press freedom in the country.


    Sources and additional Information on Algeria
    BBC Algeria: Country profile

    FAO: Algeria

    Freedom House: Algeria

    GlobalEDGE: Algeria

    The Heritage Foundation: Algeria

    LexicOrient: Algeria

    OEC: Algeria
    The Observatory of Economic Complexity provides economic information about Sudan.

    Wikipedia: Algeria

    The World Factbook Algeria
    CIA World Factbook Sudan country profile. 
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