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    ___ Colombia

    Cabo de la Vela, Guajira Peninsula, Colombia
    Cabo de la Vela, the cape on the northwest coast of the Guajira peninsula is a popular ecotourism destination of the Caribbean Region of Colombia.
    Image: Tanenhaus
     

    Flag of Colombia
    Flag of Colombia

    Location map of Colombia. Where in the world is Colombia?
    Location map of Colombia
     
    Destination Colombia, a virtual guide to Colombia, a country in northwestern South America with a coastline on both, the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. Colombia is bordered by Brazil, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela, it shares maritime borders with Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and the Cayman Islands (United Kingdom).

    With an area of 1,138,914 km2, the country is somewhat larger than twice the size of France or slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas.

    Colombia's population of almost 49 million people (in 2016) making it the third-most populous country in Latin America. The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast.

    Capital and largest city is Bogotá. Official language is Spanish, there are 68 ethnic languages and dialects still in use.



    Rebublic of Colombia | Republica de Colombia


    Country Profile



    Background:
    Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela).

    A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.

    Four decades of conflict have turned Colombia into one of the world's worst humanitarian hotspots, with millions caught up in the crossfire between leftist rebels, cocaine smugglers and far-right paramilitary militias.

    In October 2016 a referendum rejected a landmark peace deal between Marxist Farc rebels and the government to end 52 years of conflict. The deal was four years in the making and its rejection was a shock. Many of the Colombian people were angered that Farc guerrillas were offered congressional seats and non-custodial sentences such as clearing landmines in return for ending the conflict.

    Incumbent President Juan Manuel Santos has spearheaded the accord, he won the Nobel Peace Prize 2016 for his efforts.
     
     

    Official Name:
    Republica de Colombia
    conventional long form: Rebublic of Colombia
    conventional short form: Colombia
    former: United States of Colombia

    ISO Country Code: co
    Actual Time: Sat-Nov-7  01:07
    Local Time = UTC -5h

    Country Calling Code: +57

    Capital City: Bogotá formerly Santa Fe de Bogotá, (pop. about 6 million)

    Other Cities:
    Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Cartagena.

    Government:
    Type: Republic
    Independence: 20 July 1810.

    Geography:
    Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama.
    Area: 1.134 million km² (440,000 sq. mi.), fourth-largest country in South America.
    Terrain: Flat coastal areas, with extensive coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, three rugged parallel mountain chains, central highlands, and flat eastern grasslands.

    Climate: Tropical on coast and eastern plains, cooler in highlands.

    People:
    Nationality: Colombian(s).
    Population: 49 million (2016)
    GNI per capita PPP: $ 7 303 (year)
    Ethnic groups: Mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
    Religion: Roman Catholic 90%.
    Language: Spanish
    Literacy: 93% in urban areas, 67% in rural areas.

    Natural resources: Coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nickel, gold, silver, copper, platinum, emeralds.

    Agriculture products: Coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp.

    Industries: Textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds.

    Exports partners:US 27.5%, Panama 7.2%, China 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Ecuador 4% (2015)

    Imports partners:US 28.8%, China 18.6%, Mexico 7.1%, Germany 4.2% (2015)


    Currency: Colombian Peso (COP)

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    Official Sites of Colombia

    Colombia
    Presidencia de la Republica de Colombia.
    (in Spanish)

    Senado de la República
    The Senate of the Colombian Republic. (in Spanish)


    Gobiernoenlinea
    Online Information and Service by the Colombian Government. (mostly in Spanish)


    Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
    The Ministry of External Relations. (in Spanish)

    Diplomatic Missions
    Permanent Mission of Colombia to the United Nations
    Misión Permanente de Colombia ante la ONU en Nueva York.
    Embassy of Colombia in the U.S.
    Washington D.C.
    Foreign Missions in Colombia
    List of foreign diplomatic missions in Colombia.
    Colombian Missions Abroad
    List of Colombia's diplomatic missions.


    Statistics
    Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica - DANE
    Statistics Colombia (in Spanish).

    Maps

    profile Map of Colombia
    Political Map of Colombia.
    Google Earth Google Earth Colombia
    Searchable map and satellite view of Colombia.
    Google Earth Google Earth Bogotá
    Searchable map and satellite view of Bogotá, capital city of Colombia.

    Map of Central America and the Caribbean
    Reference Map of Central America and the Caribbean. 
    Map of South America
    Reference map of South America.
     
     

    Colombia News


    Colombian Newspapers (all in Spanish)
    El Colombiano
    Colombia News.
    El Diario On-Line
    National and international news.
    El Espectador
    The oldest newspaper in Colombia.
    El Mundo
    Colombia News
    El Tiempo
    Domestic and international news.
    Portafolio
    Noticias económicas, business news Colombia.
     

    Bookmark/share this page
    Instagram

     

    Arts & Culture


    Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia
    The National Library of Colombia. (in Spanish)

    Universidad Nacional de Colombia
    Guide to the university's activities to generate new interactions between education and culture.

    Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Bogotá
    The modern art museum in Bogotá.

    Museo de Antioquia
    The Museum of Antioquia is an art museum in Medellín, it houses a large collection of works by Medellín native Fernando Botero and Pedro Nel Gómez.

    Museo del Oro
    Gold Museum in Bogota displays pre-Hispanic goldwork collection.



     
    Inzá Mask, Museo del Oro, Colombia
    Inzá Mask from Tierradentro, Upper Magdalena Region. Museo del Oro
     

    Business & Economy


    Banco de la República
    Central Bank Colombia (in Spanish).
    Bolsa de Valores de Colombia
    Stock Exchange Colombia (in Spanish).

    Confederacion Colombiana de Camaras de Comercio
    The Colombian Federation of Chambers of Commerce.
    Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá
    Chamber of Commerce Bogotá (in Spanish).
    Colombian Government Trade Bureau
    Doing business in Colombia, Import, Export and Trade information.

    Colombian Products

    Federación Nacional de cafeteros
    Colombian Coffee Growers Federation.
    Café de Colombia
    Colombian Coffee (Spanish).

    ¡Qué Hubo
    Colombian Yellow Pages.


    Economic Indicators
    FocusEconomics: Colombia

    Transportation
    Airline
    Avianca
    The Colombian Airline.

     
    Colombia Capital City Bogotá
    Bogotá Colombia's Capital
    © bogotaturismo.gov.co
    Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena
    Castillo San Felipe de Barajas in Cartagena, the hilltop fortress was built in the 1600s with a complex tunnel system.
    Image: Javiercelia1

    Travel and Tour Consumer Information


    Destination Colombia - Travel and Tour Guides

    Destination Colombia: Bogota, Monserrate, Tayrona National Natural Park, Catedral de Sal, Zipaquirá, Rosario Islands, Castillo San Felipe de Barajas, Santa Cruz de Mompox, Malpelo Island.


    Travel Colombia
    Official travel guide of Colombia.

    Explore Bogota
    Official city guide with extensive information on Bogota and surroundings.

    Colombia Info
    by Latin-American Student Organization.

    Colombia
    Colombia Information by the Universidad de los Andes (Spanish).

    Visit Santander
    Visitors guid to Santander Department.

    Catedral de Sal
    The Salt Cathedral, a tourist attraction in the salt mines of Zipaquirá.
    Parque Explora Medellín
    An interactive science museum and the largest freshwater aquarium in Latin America.
    Rosario Islands
    Guide to Rosario Islands, Cartagena.
    Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox
    Santa Cruz de Mompox on the banks of the River Magdalena was founded in 1539. The city played a key role in the Spanish colonization of northern South America. Its historic center is today a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    San Agustín Archaeological Park
    The largest group of religious monuments and megalithic sculptures in South America is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary
    Vast marine park and the largest no-fishing zone in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.



    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Colombia
    World Heritage Site Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena
    The city of Cartagena de Indias boasts the most extensive and one of the most complete systems of military fortifications in South America, built in the 16th century and expanded in 17th and 18th centuries.

    World Heritage Site Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox
    Santa Cruz de Mompox is a municipality on the banks of the River Magdalena in northern Colombia, it is famous for its historic center. The city played a key role in the Spanish colonization of northern South America.

    World Heritage Site National Archeological Park of Tierradentro
    Tierradentro is a National archeological park near the municipality of Inza, in the Andes colombianos. The huge underground tombs of Tierradentro (literally belowground) are decorated with motifs of a pre-Hispanic society.
     
     
     

    Education


    Pontivicia Universidad Javeriana
    Universidad de Antioquia
    Official website of the University of Antioquia, Medellín (in Spanish)
    Universidad de los Andes
    Bogotá
    Universidad EAFIT
    The official university website provides information about EAFIT and its study programs.
    Universidad La Gran Colombia
    Bogotá
    Universidad Nacional
    The National University of Colombia, a public, research university with branches in Bogotá, Medellín, Manizales and Palmira.
    Universidad Nacional / Medellín
    Universidad del Valle
    The University of Valle is a public, research university in Cali, Valle del Cauca.

    Science
    Colombian Institute for Science and Techonology Development
     
     
     
    Puracé volcano in Puracé National Natural Park
    Puracé volcano in Puracé National Natural Park, seen from the colonial city of Popayán.
    Image: Diesalcedo


    Environment & Nature


    Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia
    Site of the National System of Protected Areas in Colombia.

    WWF Colombia
    WWF Colombia site. (in Spanish)
    WWF in Colombia
    Site about WWF's work in Colombia.
     
     
     

    History


    Archivo General de la Nación
    The Colombian National Archive. (in Spanish)
    Departamento de Historia, Universidad del Valle
    Department of History (in Spanish)
    History of Colombia
    Documents about Colombia's history by World History Archives.
    History of Colombia
    From Wikipedia.
     


     

    Issues Colombia


    Decades of conflict have turned Colombia into one of the world's worst humanitarian hotspots. More than 3 million people have been forced from their homes and tens of thousands have been killed. The main players are government troops, leftist rebels, right-wing militias and cocaine cartels.

    Sites related to the very difficult political and social situation in Colombia.

    Washington Post
    Article about the possible end of a long-running war (2016).

    The Guardian
    Colombia: is the end in sight to the world's longest war? (2016)

    Human Rights Watch: Colombia
    HRW Org about Colombia.


    __Sites from and about abductees of the FARC
    www.betancourt.info
    Ingrid Betancourt and Clara Rojas since Februar 2002 prisoners of the FARC. A multilingual site for information on Ingrid's and Clara's abduction.
    Die dunkle Seite der FARC
    The dark side of the FARC, site from FARC abductees Ulrich and Thomas Künzel, and Reiner Bruchmann. (in German)

    Various Interest Groups of Colombia

    Right-wing paramilitaries, who have deep links with the army and police.
    AUC - Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
    The right-wing paramilitary United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia.
    The bulk of the AUC's blocs was demobilized by early 2006 and its former top leaders were extradited to the U.S. in 2008. However, local successors such as the Black Eagles (Spanish: águilas Negras) continue to exist and death threats have been made using its name.

    __Marxist guerrilla groups:
    ELN
    The National Liberation Army, Colombia's second largest guerrilla group. (in Spanish)
    FARC-EP - Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
    The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - Ejercito del Pueblo, Colombia's main guerrilla group.

    Native
    Etnias de Colombia
    Site for and about ethnic groups of Colombia, by Fundación Hemera. (in Spanish)
     
     

    Sources and additional Information on Colombia


    Amnesty International: Colombia

    BBC Country Profile: Colombia

    FAO: Colombia

    GlobalEDGE: Colombia

    The Heritage Foundation: Colombia

    Human Rights Watch: Colombia

    OEC: Colombia

    Reporters Without Borders: Colombia

    Wikipedia: Colombia

    The World Factbook -- Colombia
     
     Support UNICEF

    Other Countries of South America:
    Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Ecuador | French Guiana
    Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela

    Major Cities in South America:
    Belo Horizonte, Bogotá, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, Caracas, La Paz, Lima, Manaus, Montevideo, Paramaribo,
    Porto Alegre, Quito, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador (da Bahia, Santiago, São Paulo, Sucre


    Countries of Middle and Central America:
    Belize | Costa Rica | El Salvador | Guatemala | Honduras | Mexico | Nicaragua | Panama
     
     
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