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    Greece


    Acropolis complex seen from the Mouseion Hill in Athens
    View of Acropolis complex, the iconic symbol for both Athens and Greece, seen from the Mouseion Hill, with Lycabettus, Athens highest point in the background. The Acropolis, Athens, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    Image: Christophe Meneboeuf


     
    Location map of Greece. Where in the world is Greece?
    Location map of Greece


    Flag of Greece


    Flag of Greece

    Destination Greece, a Nations Online profile of Hellas, the country in the Mediterranean, occupying the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. The Hellenic Republic (the official name) is composed of two main peninsulas and some thousand islands in the Aegean (east) and the Ionian seas (west of the mainland). The country is bordered by Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, and North Macedonia. Greece shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, and Libya.

    With an area of 132 000 km2, Greece is slightly larger than half the size of the United Kingdom, or somewhat smaller than the US state of Alabama.

    Greece has a population of 10.5 million people (in 2019). The largest city and national capital is Athens; spoken languages are Greek (official) and Turkish (predominantly spoken by a minority of Turks in Western Thrace).

    What is Greece famous for?
    Greece is famous for its ancient philosophers, like Plato, Pythagoras, Socrates, and Aristotle, to name a few. It is known as the birthplace of democracy in the West; they invented the Olympic Games and theater. Ancient Greeks invented monumental temples with Greek columns. Greece uses a writing system that is unreadable for most people. The country is also famous for Greek food and wine; the Greek Islands; ancient oracle sites like Delphi and Dodona; the Acropolis of Athens; the Twelve Olympians, deities of the Greek pantheon; the nine Greek Muses, and Homer, the earliest poet of the West.

     
    Hellenic Republic | Ελληνικ? Δημοκρατ?α



    Background:
    Greece has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. In ancient times there have been three main civilizations in Greece, the Trojan civilization in Troy, the Cretan or Minoan civilization centered on Crete, and the Helladic or Mycenaean civilization of the Greek mainland. Greek's victory against the Persian invaders at the beginning of the 5th century strengthens Athens' role as the leader of the Greek world. It marks the beginning of an epoch called "The Golden Age of Pericles," in which Athens became the cradle of democracy itself. In the following Hellenistic Period, Greek civilization has spread, and the Greek language became official in the eastern Mediterranean.


    Followed by the Greco-Roman civilization and a long period of foreign occupation through Romans, French, Spanish, and the Ottomans, Greece achieved its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1830.
    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, it gradually added neighboring islands and territories with Greek-speaking populations. In 1945, Greece became a member of the UN.

    Following the defeat of communist rebels in 1949, Greece joined NATO in 1952.
    In 1967 a coup d'état took place, which led to a military dictatorship that lasted seven years. Many political freedoms were suspended, and the king was forced to flee the country. In autumn 1973, anti-government student revolts broke out, which led to the overthrow of the junta in July 1974.

    Democratic elections in 1974 and a referendum created a parliamentary republic and abolished the monarchy; Greece joined the European Community or EC in 1981 (which became the EU in 1992).
     
     

     

    Country Profile



    Official Name:
    Elliniki Dhimokratia
    short form: Ellas or Ellada
    int'l long form: Hellenic Republic
    int'l short form: Greece
    former: Kingdom of Greece

    ISO Country Code: GR, GRC

    Time:
    Time Zone: EET - Eastern European Time
    Local Time = UTC +2h
    Actual Time: Sat-Nov-21  23:23
    DST from March - October; UTC +3h

    Country Calling Code: +30

    Capital City: Athens
    Greater Athens (pop. 3 566 000)
    Athens
    Municipality of Athens - local government cultural executive body.

    ...show more



    Official Sites of Greece

    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.

    Hellenic Parliament in Athens, Greece
    Front fa?ade of the Hellenic Parliament in Athens, Greece.
    Image: ? Thomas Wolf



    The Hellenic Government
    The Greek Constitution defines Greece as a parliamentary republic. The President is the head of state and, together with the government, forms the executive. The Head of Government of Greece is the Prime Minister. The Greek Parliament is a single-chamber legislature with 300 seats and is elected every four years.


    Note: External links will open in a new browser window.  

    The Hellenic Government
    Official website of the Greek government.

    Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic
    Office of the Prime Minister of Greece.

    Hellenic Parliament
    The Greece Parliament's official site.


    Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs
    Official site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece.

    Diplomatic Missions
    Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations
    Greece representation to the UN.
    Embassy of Greece in the U.S.
    Washington D.C.
    Greek Diplomatic and Consular Missions
    Address list of Greek Missions Abroad.
    Foreign Missions in Greece
    Address list of Foreign Missions in Greece.


    Statistics
    Hellenic Statistical Authority
    Greece in figures.

     

     


    Maps of Greece



    A Greece Map
    Map of Greece (click map to enlarge)
    Image: ? nationsonline.org


    Maps

    Map of Greece
    Political map of Greece
    Administrative Map of Greece
    Map of Greece with its first-level administrative divisions.
    Google Earth Google Earth Greece
    Searchable map and satellite view of Greece.
    Google Earth Google Earth - Athens
    Searchable map and satellite view of the Greek capital city.
    Google Earth Google Earth - Acropolis of Athens
    Labeled satellite view of the monuments of Acropolis of Athens.

    Map of Cyprus

    Continent:
    Map of the Mediterranean
    Political Map of the Mediterranean.
    Map of the Balkan Peninsula
    Political Map of the Balkans.
    Map of Europe
    Political Map of Europe.
     

     


    News from Greece



    Newsstand

    Online News from Greece




    Athens-Macedonian News Agency (ANA-MPA)
    The national news agency of Greece.

    Ekathimerini
    English-language daily news and information from Greece, Cyprus, and Southeastern Europe.

    To Vima
    Greek and English-language daily news from Greece and Southern Europe.

    Eleftherotypia
    Eleftherotypia was a daily national newspaper published in Athens; it ceased publication in November 2014.

    Eleftheros Typos
    Eleftheros Typos (Free Press) is an Athens daily newspaper with a conservative orientation.

    Ethnos
    Greek daily (in Greek).

    Estia
    Greek national daily broadsheet published in Athens,

    Naftemporiki
    Greek news (in Greek and English).

    Ta Nea
    Center-left daily newspaper published in Athens. (in Greek).

    The National Herald (Εθνικ?? Κ?ρυξ)
    Bringing the news to generations of Greek-Americans.
     

     

     


    Arts & Culture of Greece



    The exhibition hall at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.
    Image: National Archaeological Museum


    Arts & Culture



    Ministry of Culture and Sports
    The Hellenic Culture information server by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports.

    The Hellenic Foundation for Culture
    HFC was established in 1992 and is based in Athens. Its main aim is to promote Greek culture and language throughout the world.


    Greek National Opera
    Home page of the Greek National Opera.

    Greek Philosophy
    by the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.


    National Art Gallery
    The Department of Conservation and Restoration of the National Gallery and Alexander Soutzos Museum.

    Thessaloniki State Museum of Modern Art
    MOMus is the result of the merger of four museums and art institutions in Thessaloniki.

    Hellenic Cosmos
    Cultural center and museum in Athens.



    Archaeological Museums

    Traditional fishing boat from Malta
    The Mask of Agamemnon.
    Image: National Archaeological Museum

    New Acropolis Museum
    The New Acropolis Museum (NAM) officially opened in June 2009. The museum houses all items found on the site of the Acropolis of Athens.

    see also: Labeled satellite view of the monuments of Acropolis of Athens.


    National Archaeological Museum
    The museum displays some of the most important artifacts from a variety of archaeological sites throughout Greece from early history to late antiquity.


    Archaeological Museum of Olympia
    The Archaeological Museum in Olympia is among the most important museums in Greece.


    Changing of the Greek Presidential Guard in Athens, Greece
    Evzones at work. Changing of the Greek Presidential Guard in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Syntagma Square in Athens.
    Image: Jean Housen 
     

     
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    Business & Economy of Greece



    Port of Piraeus  (periphery of Attica) in Greece
    The Port of Piraeus. The city is the commercial hub of Greek shipping and the largest shipping center in Greece.
    Image: Nikolaos Diakidis


    Economy of Greece
    Greece has a market-oriented economy based on services (68%), industry (15%), manufacturing (10%), and agriculture (4%) to the country's GDP in 2017. Of the services, tourism accounts for about 18% of national economic output and employs more than 900,000 people, accounting for one-fifth of the workforce. Merchant shipping is the country's most important industry worth $21.9 billion in 2018. Greek companies control 23.2% of the world's total merchant fleet.


    Of the six Greek companies with the highest revenues, five are banks, and the other is an oil company.


    Bank of Greece
    Greece Central Bank.

    Piraeus Bank
    Greek multinational financial services company with headquarters in Athens.

    National Bank of Greece (NBG)
    Greek's second-largest commercial bank by total revenue.

    Athens Stock Exchange
    The stock exchange of Greece.


    Hellenic Petroleum
    Oil company.


    Other Greek Brands

    Folli Follie
    A greek-based company that designs and manufactures jewelry, watches, accessories, and giftware.

    Grecotel
    The largest hotel chain in Greece.

    Green Cola

    "the green side of soft drinks"

    Metaxa
    Greek spirit.


    Transportation
    Airlines

    Aegean Airlines
    Aegean Airlines is the largest airline in Greece, based in Kifisia; its hub is at Athens-Eleftherios Venizelos Airport.

    Ellinair
    Greek airline based in Thessaloniki with its hub at Thessaloniki Airport.

    Olympic Air
    Greek regional airline based in Athens, a subsidiary of Aegean Airlines.

    Sky Express
    Greek domestic airline based in Heraklion and operating out of Heraklion airport.


    Airports
    Arrivals/departures and airport information

    Athens International Airport
    Athens International Airport Eleftherios Venizelos.

    Thessaloniki Airport
    Official website of Thessaloniki Airport.

    Rhodes International Airport
    The island of Rhodes airport.


    Ferry Services

    Aegean Speed Lines
    Greek ferry company operating fast ferries between Piraeus and the Cyclades island group.

    ANEK Lines
    ANEK Lines operates high-speed ferry services from Italy to Greece.

    Blue Star Ferries
    Blue star ferries is the biggest ferry company in Greece; it provides ferry services from the Greek mainland to the Aegean Islands.

    Hellenic Seaways
    A Greek shipping company that operates passenger and freight ferry services in the Aegean and the Adriatic Sea.

    Minoan Lines
    Ferry services between the ports of Piraeus (Athens), Heraklion (Crete), Corfu, Igoumenitsa, and Patras.


    Railway
    Hellenic Railways OSE
    Official site of the Hellenic Railways Organisation.

     

     


    Tourism in Greece



    View of the Santorini caldera
    Panoramic view of the Santorini caldera, seen from Oia.
    Image: Leonard G.


    Destination Greece - Travel and Tour Guides


    Advertisement

    Discover Greece:

    Discover Greece: Greece has an abundance of resources that tourists with ecological and cultural interests will find very attractive. Most attractive: Athens, the capital with the Acropolis complex, the Ionian Islands, the Cyclades, the Dodecanese islands, and the Sporades.



    Greek National Tourism Organization
    The official website of the Greek national tourism organization.

    Hellenic Ministry of Tourism
    Official website of the Greek Ministry of Tourism.


    Greek Islands

    Andros
    Official website of Andros, the northernmost and second-largest island of the Cyclades.

    Astronaut photograph of the island of Crete
    Astronaut photograph of the island of Crete, taken from the International Space Station.
    Image: NASA Earth Observatory

    Crete
    The official travel guide of the largest of the Greek islands.

    Corfu
    Corfu is the second largest of the Ionian Islands in the Ionian Sea.

    Kos
    The island of Kos in the eastern Aegean Sea is located off the coast of Asia Minor.

    Mykonos
    Mykonos, one of the islands of the Cyclades in the Aegean Sea, is known as a cosmopolitan travel mecca.

    Naxos
    The official guide to the largest island of the Cyclades.

    Rhodes
    Rhodes is the largest of the Dodecanese Islands, situated off the Turkish coast in the southeast Aegean.

    Visit Samos
    Samos, the Greek island off the Turkish mainland in the Eastern Aegean.

    Skyros
    Skyros is the southernmost of the Sporades islands group.

    Visit Kythera
    A guide to Kythera, the island to the south of the Peloponnese peninsula.

    Lefkada Slow Guide
    A guide to Lefkada, the Greek island in the Ionian Sea

    Zanteisland.com
    Zakynthos island information.

    Travelling Greece
    A site on travel and tourism in Greece.


    Cyprus
    Profile of the Republic of Cyprus.


    City Guides Athens
    City of Athens
    City of Athens portal.

    Athens Survival Guide
    How to survive in Athens.

    Other Cities:
    Thessaloniki
    The city of Thessaloniki.

    Destination Piraeus
    The Piraeus Prefecture.


    Palace of Saints Michael and George in the city of Corfu, Greece
    The neoclassical palace of Saints Michael and George in the city of Corfu on the island of the same name. The Old Town of Corfu is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    Image: Martin Falbisoner

     

     


    UNESCO World Heritage Sites


    Alcazar of Segovia in  Castile and León, Spain
    The ancient theater of Delphi was built above the Temple of Apollo, and it offers spectators a view of the entire sanctuary and the valley below. The Archaeological Site of Delphi is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    Image: Kim Bach
     

    UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Spain

    Greece is home to 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 16 cultural and two mixed. (see UNESCO's list for Greece)


    World Heritage Site Acropolis, Athens
    The Acropolis of Athens and its monuments are considered the universal symbols of the classical spirit and classical civilization. The temple complex on a hill in the middle of Athens is the largest architectural and artistic group of monuments that Greek antiquity has left to the world. In ancient times, strong fortification walls have surrounded the summit of the Acropolis hill.

    World Heritage Site Archaeological Site of Aigai
    In 1977, the burial sites of several kings of Greek Macedon were found in the town of Aigai (Vergina), which was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Macedonia. It was the site where Philip II of Macedon was king. From here, he restored peace within the kingdom, and by 339 BC, he had gained domination over all of Greece by military and diplomatic means. He was the father of Alexander the Great, his successor.

    World Heritage Site Archaeological Site of Delphi
    The sanctuary of Delphi, with its main monument, the Temple of Apollo, is located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus, about seven kilometers from the coast of the Corinthian Gulf. In ancient Greece, Delphi was the "center of the world," the hub of the universe, literally. It was the site where Pythia, the high priestess of Apollo at Delphi, went into a trance to forecast the outcome of future wars or political strategies. The sanctuary itself was at the center of several "Sacred Wars" over the control of Delphi.

    World Heritage Site Medieval City of Rhodes
    For more than 200 years, Rhodes, an island off the Turkish mainland in the eastern Mediterranean, was ruled by the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, a military order who had lost their last stronghold in the Holy Land. The history of Rhodes under the reign of the Knights Hospitaller lasted from 1310 until 1522. They transformed the island capital into a fortified city that could withstand sieges by Egyptian (Mamluk) and Ottoman forces. The city of Rhodes is one of the best-preserved and most extensive medieval towns in Europe.



    The Avenue of the Knights in Rhodes city, Rhodes
    The Avenue of the Knights in the old town of Rhodes.
    Image: Self
     

     


    Education in Greece



    University of Athens historic building
    The 19th-century University of Athens historic building.
    Image: Thomas Wolf


    Important Universities in Greece

    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
    Prestigious AUTh is the largest university in Greece, founded in 1925.

    Athens University of Economics and Business
    University-level education in Economics and Business, founded in 1920.

    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
    The first university in the newly established Greek state (in 1828). It is commonly known as the University of Athens (UoA), the public university in Athens was founded in 1837.

    National Technical University of Athens N.T.U.A.
    The oldest educational institution in Greece in the field of technology was founded in 1836.

    University of Crete
    High-ranking multi-disciplinary, research-oriented university on the island of Crete.
     

     


    Environment & Nature



    Meteora rock formation and Rosánou monastry
    Panoramic view of Meteora, a rock formation of immense monolithic sandstone pillars, and a complex of 24 ancient Eastern Orthodox monasteries built upon the rocks. Six of the monasteries are still inhabited. In the foreground, the Rosánou-monastery. Meteora official website is a Greek UNESCO World Heritage site.
    Image: Wisniowy


    Hellenic Ministry of Environment and Energy
    Official website of the ministry.

    National Center for Marine Research Institute of Oceanography
    The site provides information about the Greek Poseidon Marine Monitor System.

    ARCHELON
    Sea Turtle Protection Society of Greece.

    Arcturos
    Greek environmental organization which focuses on saving the brown bear and its habitats.

    Ecological Movement of Thessaloniki
    An eco-political group, active in Greece (in Greek).

    Ecoweek
    Ecoweek was founded in Greece in 2005. The organization's aim is to raise awareness of environmental issues and climate change.

     

     


    Greece History



    Painted vase from the Dipylon Cemetary in Athens
    Greek geometric pottery (circa 900 BC – 700 BC.): Painted vase from the Dipylon Cemetary in Athens.
    This work is part of the collections of the Louvre, Paris.


    Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki
    Explore the cultural heritage of Central Macedonia.

    Greek Mythology
    Site about all the protagonists of the Greek mythology.

    History of Greek Antiquity by period

    Index of Greek Antiquity by period.

    Ancient Greece
    All about the old Greeks.

    Ancient Greece (period)
    Wikipedia article about Greece history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600).

    Hellenic History
    Site about Greek history from the Stone Age to contemporary Greece.

    The Stoa Consortium
    Allen Ross Scaife founded the Stoa Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities in 1997 as an umbrella project for many projects in the Classics.


    Greek Philosophy
    List of ancient Greek philosophers
    Wikipedia index of ancient Greek philosophers, from Acrion to Zeno of Tarsus.
     
     

     


     



     
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