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    ___ Independent States of the World

    Flags of member states of the United Nations, United Nations Office, Geneva
    Flags of all member states of the United Nations at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
    Image: ? Yann Forget
     

    List of all Sovereign Nations and their Capital Cities.

    Since South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, there are now 195 independent sovereign states in the world (including de facto independent Taiwan). Last change was with the ending of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in June 2006, Montenegro and Serbia came into existence as independent states.
    (Palestinian territories and Taiwan are (until now) not recognized as sovereign states, Kosovo is partially recognized by 81 out of 193 United Nations member states. (Aug. 2011)

    On this page you will find a list of all sovereign states with the country code and their capital cities. Click on a country name to get the country's profile, or you might want to have a closer look at a capital city with a searchable map, then use the city's link below.

    The states marked with an asterisk (*) are members of the United Nations


    Definition of a state:
    A territory built by conquest in which one culture, one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by force or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and military bureaucracy. States are ephemeral and originate and disappear with the stroke of a pen (e.g. the end of the U.S.S.R., December 25, 1991).

    Another definition of an independent state you will find at the end of this page.

     

    Independent States


    A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | Y | Z
     

    A
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Afghanistan * Islamic State of Afghanistan AF Kabul
    Albania * Republic of Albania AL Tirana
    Algeria * Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria DZ Algiers
    Andorra * Principality of Andorra AD Andorra la Vella
    Angola * Republic of Angola AO Luanda
    Antigua and Barbuda * Antigua and Barbuda AG Saint John's
    Argentina * Argentine Republic AR Buenos Aires
    Armenia * Republic of Armenia AM Yerevan
    Australia * Commonwealth of Australia AU Canberra
    Austria * Republic of Austria AT Vienna
    Azerbaijan * Azerbaijani Republic AZ Baku


    B
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Bahamas, The * Commonwealth of The Bahamas BS Nassau
    Bahrain * State of Bahrain BH Manama
    Bangladesh * People's Republic of Bangladesh BD Dhaka
    Barbados * Barbados BB Bridgetown
    Belarus * Republic of Belarus BY Minsk
    Belgium * Kingdom of Belgium BE Brussels
    Belize * Belize BZ Belmopan
    Benin * Republic of Benin BJ Porto-Novo
    Bhutan * Kingdom of Bhutan BT Thimphu
    Bolivia * Republic of Bolivia BO La Paz (administrative)
    Sucre (legisl./judiciary)
    Bosnia and Herzegovina *   BA Sarajevo
    Botswana * Republic of Botswana BW Gaborone
    Brazil * Federative Republic of Brazil BR Brasilia
    Brunei Darussalam * Negara Brunei Darussalam BN Bandar Seri Begawan
    Bulgaria * Republic of Bulgaria BG Sofia
    Burkina Faso * Burkina Faso BF Ouagadougou
    Burma (Myanmar) * Union of Myanmar MM Yangon
    (Rangoon)
    Burundi * Republic of Burundi BI Bujumbura

    C
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Cambodia * Kingdom of Cambodia KH Phnom Penh
    Cameroon * Republic of Cameroon CM Yaoundé
    Canada * Canada CA Ottawa
    Cape Verde * Republic of Cape Verde CV Praia
    Central African Republic * Central African Republic CF Bangui
    Chad * Republic of Chad TD N'Djamena
    Chile * Republic of Chile CL Santiago
    China * People's Republic of China CN Beijing
    Colombia * Republic of Colombia CO Bogotá
    Comoros * Federal Islamic Republic
    of the Comoros
    KM Moroni
    Congo (Brazzaville) * Republic of the Congo CG Brazzaville
    Congo (Kinshasa) * Democratic Republic
    of the Congo
    CD Kinshasa
    Costa Rica * Republic of Costa Rica CR San José
    Cote d'Ivoire * Republic of Côte d'Ivoire CI Yamoussoukro
    Croatia (Hrvatska) * Republic of Croatia HR Zagreb
    Cuba * Republic of Cuba CU Havana (Habana)
    Cyprus * Republic of Cyprus CY Nicosia
    Czech Republic * Czech Republic CZ Prague

    D
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Denmark * Kingdom of Denmark DK Copenhagen
    Djibouti * Republic of Djibouti DJ Djibouti
    Dominica * Commonwealth of Dominica DM Roseau
    Dominican Republic * Dominican Republic DO Santo Domingo

    E
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Ecuador * Republic of Ecuador EC Quito
    Egypt * Arab Republic of Egypt EG Cairo
    El Salvador * Republic of El Salvador SV San Salvador
    Equatorial Guinea * Republic of Equatorial Guinea GQ Malabo
    Eritrea * State of Eritrea ER Asmara
    Estonia * Republic of Estonia EE Tallinn
    Ethiopia * Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia ET Addis Ababa

    F
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Fiji * Republic of the Fiji Islands FJ Suva
    Finland * Republic of Finland FI Helsinki
    France * French Republic FR Paris

    G
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Gabon * Gabonese Republic GA Libreville
    Gambia, The * Republic of The Gambia GM Banjul
    Georgia * Georgia GE T'bilisi
    Germany * Federal Republic of Germany DE Berlin
    Ghana * Republic of Ghana GH Accra
    Greece * Hellenic Republic GR Athens
    Grenada * Grenada GD Saint George's
    Guatemala * Republic of Guatemala GT Guatemala
    Guinea * Republic of Guinea GN Conakry
    Guinea-Bissau * Republic of Guinea-Bissau GW Bissau
    Guyana * Co-operative
    Republic of Guyana
    GY Georgetown

    H
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Haiti * Republic of Haiti HT Port-au-Prince
    Holy See (Vatican City State) Holy See VA Vatican City
    Honduras * Republic of Honduras HN Tegucigalpa
    Hungary * Republic of Hungary HU Budapest

    I
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Iceland * Republic of Iceland IS Reykjavik
    India * Republic of India IN New Delhi
    Indonesia * Republic of Indonesia ID Jakarta
    Iran * Islamic Republic of Iran IR Tehran
    Iraq * Republic of Iraq IQ Baghdad
    Ireland * Republic of Ireland IE Dublin (City)
    Israel * State of Israel IL Jerusalem (claimed)
    Italy * Italian Republic IT Rome

    J
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Jamaica * Jamaica JM Kingston
    Japan * Japan JP Tokyo
    Jordan * Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan JO Amman

    K
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Kazakhstan * Republic of Kazakhstan KZ Astana
    Kenya * Republic of Kenya KE Nairobi
    Kiribati Republic of Kiribati KI Tarawa
    Korea (North) * Democratic People's Republic of Korea KP P'yongyang
    Korea (South) * Republic of Korea KR Seoul
    Kuwait * State of Kuwait KW Kuwait (City)
    Kyrgyzstan * Kyrgyz Republic KG Bishkek

    L
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Lao PDR * Lao People's Democratic Republic LA Vientiane
    Latvia * Republic of Latvia LV Riga
    Lebanon * Lebanese Republic LB Beirut
    Lesotho * Kingdom of Lesotho LS Maseru
    Liberia * Republic of Liberia LR Monrovia
    Libya * Libya LY Tripoli
    Liechtenstein * Principality of Liechtenstein LI Vaduz
    Lithuania * Republic of Lithuania LT Vilnius
    Luxembourg * Grand Duchy of Luxembourg LU Luxembourg

    M
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Macedonia, Rep. of * The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia MK Skopje
    Madagascar * Republic of Madagascar MG Antananarivo
    Malawi * Republic of Malawi MW Lilongwe
    Malaysia * Malaysian Federation MY Kuala Lumpur
    Maldives * Republic of Maldives MV Male
    Mali * Republic of Mali ML Bamako
    Malta * Republic of Malta MT Valletta
    Marshall Islands * Republic of the
    Marshall Islands
    MH Majuro
    Mauritania * Islamic Republic of Mauritania MR Nouakchott
    Mauritius * Republic of Mauritius MU Port Louis
    Mexico * United Mexican States MX Mexico City
    Micronesia * Federated States of Micronesia FM Palikir
    Moldova * Republic of Moldova MD Chisinau
    Monaco * Principality of Monaco MC Monaco
    Mongolia * Mongolia MN Ulaanbaatar
    Montenegro Republic of Montenegro ME Podgorica
    Morocco * Kingdom of Morocco MA Rabat
    Mozambique * Republic of Mozambique MZ Maputo
    Myanmar * Republic of the Union of Myanmar MM Naypyidaw (formerlyYangon)

    N
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Namibia * Republic of Namibia NA Windhoek
    Nauru Republic of Nauru NR Yaren District
    (no Capital City)
    Nepal * Kingdom of Nepal NP Kathmandu
    Netherlands * Kingdom of the Netherlands NL Amsterdam
    The Hague (seat of gov't)
    New Zealand * New Zealand (Aotearoa) NZ Wellington
    Nicaragua * Republic of Nicaragua NI Managua
    Niger * Republic of Niger NE Niamey
    Nigeria * Federal Republic of Nigeria NG Abuja
    Norway * Kingdom of Norway NO Oslo

    O
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Oman * Sultanate of Oman OM Muscat

    P
      Country Name Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Pakistan * Islamic Republic of Pakistan PK Islamabad
    Palau * Republic of Palau PW Ngerulmud
    Palestinian territories Gaza Strip and West Bank -- Jerusalem (claimed)
    Panama * Republic of Panama PA Panama (City)
    Papua New Guinea * Independent State of Papua New Guinea PG Port Moresby
    Paraguay * Republic of Paraguay PY Asunción
    Peru * Republic of Peru PE Lima
    Philippines * Republic of the Philippines PH Manila
    Poland * Republic of Poland PL Warsaw
    Portugal * Portuguese Republic PT Lisbon

    Q
      Country Name Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Qatar * State of Qatar QA Doha (Al-Dawhah)

    R
     Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Romania * Romania RO Bucharest
    Russia * Russian Federation RU Moscow
    Rwanda * Rwandese Republic RW Kigali

    S
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Saint Kitts and Nevis * Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis KN Basseterre
    Saint Lucia * Saint Lucia LC Castries
    Saint Vincent and Grenadines * Saint Vincent and Grenadines VC Kingstown
    Samoa * Independent State of Samoa WS Apia
    San Marino * Republic of San Marino SM San Marino
    Sao Tome and Principe * Democratic Republic of
    Sao Tome and Principe
    ST São Tomé
    Saudi Arabia * Kingdom of Saudi Arabia SA Riyadh
    Senegal * Republic of Senegal SN Dakar
    Serbia * Republic of Serbia CS Belgrade
    Seychelles * Republic of Seychelles SC Victoria
    Sierra Leone * Republic of Sierra Leone SL Freetown
    Singapore * Republic of Singapore SG Singapore
    Slovakia * Slovak Republic SK Bratislava
    Slovenia * Republic of Slovenia SI Ljubljana
    Solomon Islands * Solomon Islands SB Honiara
    Somalia * Federal Republic of Somalia SO Mogadishu
    South Africa * Republic of South Africa ZA Pretoria (administrative)
    Cape Town (legislative)
    Bloemfontein (judiciary)
    South Sudan Republic of South Sudan SS Juba
    Spain * Kingdom of Spain ES Madrid
    Sri Lanka * Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka LK Sri Jayewardenepura-Kotte; see: Colombo
    Sudan * Republic of the Sudan SD Khartoum
    Suriname * Republic of Suriname SR Paramaribo
    Swaziland * Kingdom of Swaziland SZ Mbabane (administrative)
    Lobamba (legislative)
    Sweden * Kingdom of Sweden SE Stockholm
    Switzerland * Swiss Confederation CH Bern
    Syria * Syrian Arab Republic SY Damascus

    T
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Taiwan Taiwan, Republic of China TW Taipei
    Tajikistan * Republic of Tajikistan TJ Dushanbe
    Tanzania * United Republic of Tanzania TZ Dar es Salaam
    Dodoma (legislative)
    Thailand * Kingdom of Thailand TH Bangkok
    Tibet (Xizang - Under Sovereignty of China) - Lhasa
    Timor-Leste Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste TL Dili
    Togo * Togolese Republic TG Lomé
    Tonga Kingdom of Tonga TO Nuku'alofa
    Trinidad and Tobago * Republic of Trinidad and Tobago TT Port-of-Spain
    Tunisia * Republic of Tunisia TN Tunis
    Turkey * Republic of Turkey TR Ankara
    Turkmenistan * Turkmenistan TM Ashgabat
    Tuvalu Tuvalu TV Funafuti

    U
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Uganda * Republic of Uganda UG Kampala
    Ukraine * Ukraine UA Kiev
    United Arab Emirates * United Arab Emirates AE Abu Dhabi
    United Kingdom * United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland UK London
    United States * United States of America US Washington D.C.
    Uruguay * Oriental Republic of Uruguay UY Montevideo
    Uzbekistan * Republic of Uzbekistan UZ Tashkent

    V
      Country Name
    Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Vanuatu * Republic of Vanuatu VU Port-Vila
    Venezuela * Republic of Venezuela VE Caracas
    Viet Nam * Socialist Republic of Vietnam VN Hanoi

    Y
      Country Name Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Yemen * Republic of Yemen YE Sanaa

    Z
      Country Name Long Form Country Name
    Code
    Capital City
    Zambia * Republic of Zambia ZM Lusaka
    Zimbabwe * Republic of Zimbabwe ZW Harare
    (*) Member states of the United Nations
     

    Definition of an independent state.

    A specialized type of political organization characterized by a full-time, specialized, professional work force of tax-collectors, soldiers, policemen, bureaucrats and the like that exercises supreme political authority over a defined territory with a permanent population, independent from any enduring external political control and possessing a local predominance of coercive power (always supplemented with moral and remunerative incentives as well) great enough to maintain general obedience to its laws or commands within its territorial borders.

    The first known states were created in ancient times in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, Mexico and Peru, but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative "stateless" forms of political organization of societies all over the planet. (Roving bands of hunter-gatherers and even fairly sizable and complex tribal societies based on herding or agriculture have existed without any full-time specialized state organization, and these "stateless" forms of political organization have in fact prevailed for all of the prehistory and much of the history of the human species.)
     
    Sources:

    A Glossary of Political Economy Terms
    by Dr. Paul M. Johnson: Dept. of Political Science, Auburn University

    Nations and States - What's the difference?
    Article by James A. Paul

    Related Categories:

    Sovereign states, areas and dependent countries of the world
    List of political entities.

    Overseas Territories and Dependent Areas
    List of the overseas territories, dependent areas, and disputed territories.

    Countries by Gross National Income
    (GNI per capita PPP in $ and year)

    International Country Codes
    List of two letter code (ISO alpha-2) and the three letter code (ISO alpha-3) as well as the FIPS 10-4 code for countries, dependencies, and other areas.

    Capitals and Cities of the World
    Gateway to official sites of famous cities and capitals.

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